Mittwoch, 13. Juni 2007

Chemie - Merksätze zu "Protonenübergänge"

Tipp: benutze Strg(ctrl)+F um etwas zu Suchen

Trennung von Atombindungen
- Versuch: Synthese von HCl (klick here)
- Als Radikale bezeichnet man Atome oder Moleküle mit mindestens einem ungepaarten Elektron, die meist besondes reaktionsfähig sind. Radikale werden mit einem Punkt dargestellt.
- Bei der homolytischen Trennung einer Atombindung wird das bindende Elektronenpaar gleichmäßig auf die entstehenden Teilchen verteilt. Es entstehen dadurch Radikale.
- Bei der heterolytischen Trennung einer Atombindung wird das bindende Elektronenpaar ganz auf das elektronegativere Atom übertragen. Es entstehen dadurch Ionen.

Der Säure-Base-Begriff nach Brönsted
- Teilchen, die bei Reaktionen Protonen abgeben, nennt man Brönsted-Säuren (Protonendonatoren)
- Teilchen, die bei Reaktionen Protonen binden, nennt man Brönsted Basen (Protonenakzeptoren)
- Die Eigenschaften wäßriger saurer Lösungen sind auf Oxoniumionen, die Eigenschaften wäßriger alkalischer Lösungen auf Hydroxidionen zurückzuführen.
- Teilchen, die je nach Reaktionspartner als Brönsted-Saäure oder Brönsted-Base reagieren, nennt man Ampholyte.
- pH=-lg(c(H3O+))

Neutralisation
- Bei einer Neutralisation findet ein Protonenübergang von Oxoniumionen auf Hydroxidionen unter Bildung von Wassermolekülen statt. Es wird Neutralisationsenthalpie frei.
- Herstellung einer Maßlösung
1. Bestimmung der Konzentration von H3O+ oder OH-
Bsp. ~ für HCl c(H3O+)=c(Cl-)=c(HCl)
~ für Ca(OH)2 c(OH-)=2c(Ca2+)=2c(Ca(OH)2)
Anzahl von OH- = 2 x Anzahl von Ca2+
----> c (OH-) = 2 c (Ca2+)
2. Berechnung von der Masse: m=c*V*M
3. Abmessen und mischen
- Titration
1. Reaktionsgleichung aufstellen
2. n(Säure)=x*n(Base)
3. Stoffmengen ausrechnen (n=c*V)
4. m=n*M

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